FolkWorld #69 07/2019
© Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


The Child Ballads

Let's have another look into the world of The English and Scottish Popular Ballads collected by Francis J. Childs in the 19th century. Recently, American fingerstyle guitarist Joe Rollin Porter recorded the popular Black Jack Davy (aka Raggle Taggle Gypsy) and Scottish singer Claire Hastings its variant Seven Gypsies. There are also new renditions of Who Put the Blood (aka Edward) by English duo Hickory Signals, Broom of the Cowdenknowes (Diane Ní Chanainn) and The Keach in the Creel (Megson).

The Raggle Taggle Gypsy

"The Raggle Taggle Gypsy" (Roud 1, Child 200), is a traditional folk song that originated as a Scottish border ballad, and has been popular throughout Britain, Ireland and North America. It concerns a rich lady who runs off to join the gypsies (or one gypsy). Common alternative names are "The Raggle Taggle Gypsies O", "The Gypsy Laddie(s)", "Black Jack David" (or "Davy") and "Seven Yellow Gypsies".


Joe Rollin Porter

Joe Rollin Porter: Take This Hammer

Artist Video Joe Rollin Porter
In the folk tradition the song was extremely popular, spread all over the English-speaking world by broadsheets and oral tradition. It went under a great many titles, including "Black Jack Davy", "The Gypsy Laddie", "The Draggletail Gypsies", "Seven Yellow Gypsies" and "Johnnie Faa". According to Roud and Bishop,

"Definitely in the top five Child ballads in terms of widespread popularity, and possibly second only to 'Barbara Allen', the Gypsies stealing the lady, or, to put it the other way round, the lady running off with the sexy Gypsies, has caught singers' attention all over the anglophone world for more than 200 years. For obvious reasons, the song has long been a favourite with members of the travelling community."

Classic English and Scottish Ballads
Gypsy Davy (Child No. 200)
Margaret MacArthur, vocal and harp-zither

Roud I; also known as "Black Jack Davy," "Black Jack David," "Black Jack Daisy," "Raggle Taggle Gypsy," "Whistling Gypsy," "Johnny Faa, the Gypsy Laddie"; from FW 5314, 1962)

»This Child Ballad is still performed today and has taken on many forms. It has appeared as an Irish bar sing-along thanks to the version by the Clancy Brothers and Tommy Makem. The much more traditional Irish group Planxty recorded a version far truer to the original as "Raggle Taggle Gypsy." It was performed by many as "Whistling Gypsy" during the American folk revival. Tunesmith Woody Guthrie learned the song from his mother and transformed it into a cowboy ballad, recording it for the Library of Congress in 1940 as "Gypsy Davy."

Margaret MacArthur This one is purported to have been based on the story of a 17th-century outlaw, the gypsy Johnny Faa, and Lady Jane Hamilton, the wife of the Earl of Cassilis. Faa was caught and hanged, and the lady was imprisoned for the rest of her life (Tosches 1996). It was first published in the early 18th century.

Margaret MacArthur (1928-2006) dedicated her life to folk music, especially that of her adopted New England. She was born in Chicago and moved around before finally settling in Vermont in 1948. She was also, along with Jean Ritchie, one of the main proponents of the Appalachian dulcimer. She taught school locally, and, influenced by song collectors like Helen Hartness Flanders of Vermont, she began to interview neighbors and collect songs. The recording on this album was made in her kitchen in 1962. Since her passing, her papers have been held by the Vermont Folklife Center.

Margaret MacArthur: Folksongs of Vermont She learned this version from Alice Snow Bailey of Readsboro, Vermont.«

Artist Video "Classic English and Scottish Ballads from Smithsonian Folkways (from The Francis James Child Collection)", Smithsonian Folkways, 2017

The song was also published in books. Robert Burns used the song in his Reliques of Robert Burns; consisting chiefly of original letters, poems, and critical observations on Scottish songs (1808). Due to the Romanichal origins of the main protagonist Davie or Johnny Faa, the ballad was translated into Anglo-Romany in 1890 by the Gypsy Lore Society.

One version, collected and set to piano accompaniment by Cecil Sharp, reached a much wider public. Under the title "The Wraggle Taggle Gypsies O!", it was published in several collections, most notably one entitled English Folk Songs for Schools, leading the song to be taught to generations of English school children.

In America, the country music recording industry spread versions of the song by such notable musicians as Cliff Carlisle and the Carter Family, and later by the rockabilly singer Warren Smith, under the title "Black Jack David". In the American folk music revival, Woody Guthrie sang and copyrighted a version he called "Gypsy Davy" (which was later also sung by his son Arlo).

The Cecil Sharp sheet music version was occasionally used by jazz musicians, for example the instrumental "Raggle Taggle" by the Territory band Boots and His Buddies, and the vocal recording by Maxine Sullivan.


The core of the song's story is that a lady forsakes a life of luxury to run off with a band of gypsies. In some versions there is one individual, named, for example as Johnny Faa or Black Jack Davy. In some versions there is one leader and his six brothers. In one local tradition, the lady is identified as the wife of the Earl of Cassilis. In some versions the gypsies charm her with their singing, or even cast a spell over her. In a typical version, the lord comes home to find his lady "gone with the gypsy laddie". He saddles his fastest horse to follow her. He finds her and bids her come home, asking "Would you forsake your husband and child?" She refuses to return: in many versions preferring the cold ground ("What care I for your fine feather sheets?") and the gypsy's company to her lord's wealth and fine bed. At the end of some versions the husband kills the gypsies. In the local Cassilis tradition, they are hanged on the Cassilis Dule Tree.


Claire Hastings

Claire Hastings: Those Who Roam

Artist Video Claire Hastings

The earliest text may be "The Gypsy Loddy", published in the Roxburghe Ballads with an assigned date of 1720. A more certain date is 1740, the publication of Allan Ramsay's Tea-Table Miscellany, which included the ballad as of "The Gypsy Johnny Faa". Differences between the two texts suggest that they derive from one or more earlier versions. They were followed by several printings, often copying Ramsay. It was then printed by most of the nineteenth century broadside printers.

In "The Gypsy Loddie"

As soon as her fair face they saw
They called their grandmother over

This is assumed to be a corruption of They cast their glamour over her (i.e. they cast a spell), not vice versa. This is the motivation in many texts for the lady leaving her lord; in others she leaves of her own free will.

In some texts the lord is identifies as "Cassilis", and a local tradition identifies him as the John Kennedy 6th Earl of Cassilis. B. H. Bronson discovered that a tune in the Skene manuscripts and dated earlier than 1600, resembles later tunes for this song and is entitled "Lady Cassiles Lilt". The inference is that a song concerning Lord and Lady Cassilis existed before the two earliest manuscripts, and was the source of both.

Nick Tosches, in his Country: The Twisted Roots of Rock 'N' Roll, spends part of his first chapter examining the song's history. He compares the song's narrative to the Greek myth of Orpheus and Eurydice. The ballad, according to Tosches, retells the story of John Faa, a 17th-century outlaw, described as a Scottish Gypsy, and Lady Jane Hamilton, wife of The Earl of Cassilis. Lord Cassilis led a band of men (some sources say 16, others 7), to abduct her. They were caught and hanged on the "Dool Tree" in 1643. The "Gypsies" were killed (except for one, who escaped) and Lady Jane Hamilton was imprisoned for the remainder of her life, dying in 1642.

Related songs

The song "The Whistling Gypsy" also describes a lady running off with a "gypsy rover". However, there is no melancholy, no hardship and no conflict. Her father rides after her and discovers that the "gypsy" is really a rich lord.

The song "Lizzie Lindsay" has a similar theme. Robert Burns adapted the song into "Sweet Tibby Dunbar", a shorter version of the story. There is also a children's version by Elizabeth Mitchell which has lyrical content changed to be about a young girl "charming hearts of the ladies", and sailing "across the deep blue sea, where the skies are always sunny".

Although the hero of this song is often called "Johnny Faa" or even "Davy Faa", he should not be confused with the hero/villain of "Davy Faa (Remember the Barley Straw)". [Silber and Silber misidentify all their texts] as deriving from "Child 120", which is actually "Robin Hood's Death". According to The Faber Book of Ballads the name Faa was common among Gypsies in the 17th century.

Robbie Bankes

Robbie Bankes, Foothills
»I sing words that most clearly resemble those that Nic Jones sang on his album "Game Set March", with a few others thrown in and left out. I'm not sure about the ethics of using the word gypsy, but this is a song that highlights the historical persecution of the Roma people, which continues today. Something to think about and to act upon.«

Artist Video Robbie Bankes


Waterson:Carthys: Broken Ground
»The story is supposed to be about the Countess of Cassilis who ran away with some gipsies who were hanged for their trouble. Hanging was, of course, par for the course for gipsies at the time—sometimes just for being gipsies—indeed I sometimes think that some people nowadays yearn for such a time, gipsies being the most reviled (and legislated against) portion of our population ... Thirty year ago or more one of the Sunday papers splashed that she had run away with gipsies, and within the last seven or eight year she was said with equal certainty to have run away this time with a travelling salesman.«

AL Lloyd & Ewan MacColl

Lloyd: The Foggy Dew and Other Traditional English Love Songs
»As the story goes, 300 years ago, Lady Jean Hamilton, married to the grim puritanical Earl of Cassilis, fell in love with John Faa, a leader of a Scottish gypsy band. The couple eloped, the band was pursued, and John Faa was captured and hanged ... Perhaps it was the piquancy of the situation in which the rich man's wife finds a poor man more desirable, that has commended it so long to the singer's fancy.«

Fay Hield

Fay Hield: Old Adam
»Raggle Taggle Gypsy gives an enticing glimpse at a world we could inhabit if we would only follow our hearts.«

Artist Video Fay Hield @ FROG

Raggle Taggle Gypsy

 Listen to Raggle Taggle Gypsy / Seven Yellow Gypsies / Black Jack Davy from:
       An Rinn, Robbie Bankes, Martin Carthy, Dream Catcher,
       Julee Glaub, Claire Hastings, Fay Hield, Johnny Logan,
       Planxty (1973), Planxty (2004), Joe Rollin Porter,
       Pressgang, Mike Scott & Carlos Nunez, Emily Smith,
       Ian Smith, Steeleye Span, James Talley, Tinkers With Talent,
       Uncle Bard & The Dirty Bastards, Waterson:Carthy

 Watch Raggle Taggle Gypsy / Seven Yellow Gypsies / Black Jack Davy from:
       Martin Carthy, Clancy Brothers, Sandy Denny, FullSet, Fay Hield, Fay Hield (Live),
       The Led Farmers, Christy Moore, Planxty, Joe Rollin Porter, Show of Hands,
       Steeleye Span, Waterboys, Waterson:Carthy, The White Stripes

Lyrics (© Mainly Norfolk):
The Gypsy Laddie / Seven Yellow Gipsies / Raggle Taggle Gipsies
Gypsy Davey / Gypsum Davy / Black Jack Davy / Gypsy Rover


John Wesley Harding: Trad Arr Jones
»This is more or less a version of a large group of songs under the various titles of Edward, Lizzie Wan, Lucy Wan, What Blood is This?, etc. In this version the whole incident turns on the seemingly irrelevant statement:
It's all about a little holly bush
 That might have made a tree.
The lines are possibly explained by a glance at some of the other versions, where the son has made love to his sister and subsequently killed her when she turns out to be pregnant. The holly bush could reasonably represent some kind of guarded reference to this incident; the incident itself having been excluded from the song.« (Nic Jones)

Artist Video John Wesley Harding
(Wesley Stace) @ FROG

June Tabor

Oysterband: Ragged Kingdom
»From the singing of Margaret Stewart of Aberdeen. Long thought to be preserved only in Scandinavian and American traditions, this ancient ballad of mindless violence, fratricide ad exile was found to be treasured still by Travellers.«

Artist Video June Tabor

Fay Hield

Fay Hield: Orfeo
»More commonly known as Edward, or in Scotland My Son David, this song is pretty unusual for being entirely developed through dialogue. It's not a song I've been attracted to before, perhaps because of the lack of direct action. However, I wrote this version to fit a tune I've been humming which I felt needed a repetitive lyric to complement it. The tune is Mandad ei Comigo, from the Codax manuscripts of 13th century Spain. The longer I spent with the song, the deeper it began to affect me and what I could once switch off as tediously repetitive I now struggle to reach the end of without a catch in my throat. It's intensely powerful to take the role of the mother and discover, during the course of a conversation, that you have lost your daughter, your unborn grandchild, and that there is no other choice than for your son to leave for an unknown destiny. Then, consider the twisted feelings of anguish she must be feeling towards all of these people as a result of their activities. An incredible song, essentially delivered through just one line of text: “It's the blood of my sister dear, she would have my baby.”«

Artist Video Fay Hield

"Edward" is a traditional murder ballad existing in several variants. In English its versions were collected by Francis James Child as Child Ballad number 13. The Roud number is 200.


A mother questions her son about the blood on his sword. He puts her off with claims that it is his hawk or his horse, in some combination, but finally admits that it is his brother, or his father, whom he has killed. He declares that he is leaving and will never return, and various creatures (wife, children, livestock) will have to fare without him. His mother then asks what she will get from his departure. He answers "a curse from hell" and implicates his mother in the murder.


Hickory Signals

Hickory Signals: Turn to Fray

Artist Video Hickory Signals

This ballad may not be complete in itself. Large portions of the ballad are also found in the longer ballads "The Twa Brothers" (Child 49) and "Lizie Wan" (Child 51).

Parallels in other languages

This ballad type was also found in Northern Europe, where it is often known under "Svend i Rosensgård" or a similar name. Its general Scandinavian classification is TSB D 320, and it is known in Danish (DgF 340), Icelandic (IFkv 76), Norwegian, and Swedish (SMB 153). In Finland, it is popular as "Poikani Poloinen", both as a poem and as a song, first published in the collection Kanteletar.

In the Scandinavian versions, and the Finnish one, the stress is more on the gradual divulge of the fact that the son will never return home to his mother.

Irish versions

Versions collected orally in Ireland are usually named "What Put the Blood" or similar. The version sung by County Fermanagh traditional singer Paddy Tunney is on his Folk-Legacy CD The Man of Songs. He called it "What put the Blood on Your Right Shoulder, Son?"

Ellen Connors of County Wexford called it "What Brought the Blood".

The versions collected from traveller John ("Jacko") Reilly in the 1960s in Boyle, County Roscommon became very popular in Ireland, as they were recorded by folk singers of the day. There are recordings by Christy Moore, The Johnstons, Karan Casey, Al O'Donnell and others.

Percy's "Edward"

The authenticity of one popular version of this ballad (Child 13B) has been called into question. This version originally appeared in print in Bishop Percy's 1765 edition of Reliques of Ancient English Poetry. Percy reported that he received this Scottish ballad from Sir David Dalrymple, who said he heard it from an unnamed lady. This version appears inauthentic because it seems, in short, too "good": it makes exceptional use of literary devices for maximum impact. Moreover, unlike most other versions, the father is the victim rather than the brother, and the mother receives a curse at the end. There is also little evidence that this version was disseminated orally; it seems to have appeared most often in print form.

Ewan MacColl

The English and Scottish Popular Ballads (The Child Ballads) Volume II
»The high esteem in which Child held this ballad is indicated by the statement in his introductory notes: “Edward … has ever been regarded as one of the noblest and most sterling specimens of the popular ballad.” Such praise is entirely deserved, for the ballad, employing throughout a simple dialogue device, builds to a climatic emotional peak unsurpassed in any other Child ballad. The ballad is known in the Northern countries of Europe, the dialogue form being maintained in every instance. Since Child's time, most reported texts do not implicate the mother in the crime, which in almost every case is fratricide (rather than patricide as in the Child “B” text). Archer Taylor, in his full-length study of the ballad, feels the fratricide factor relates recent findings to the earliest Scandinavian forms of the ballad, whence the English versions stem. The ballad has been collected rather frequently in America; until recently it had been unreported in Britain for many years. MacColl's version was learned from Jeannie Robertson, housewife and former tinker from Aberdeen.« (K.S. Goldstein)

Jim Malcolm

Old Blind Dogs: World's Room
»A traditional ballad, plucked from Child's Ballads without a tune. Jim and Jonny worked on Andy Thoburn's There's Deils to produce the melody. This dark, dark ballad, first published in 1765, has the son killing his father, and there is a suggestion the mother put her son up to the deed. The song contains a reference to the ‘warldis room’ or world's room, the title of this album. The phrase means ‘freedom to roam’, which was considered by nomadic families, in Scotland called the travelling people, to be their reward for living a life without material wealth.«


 Listen to Edward / What Put the Blood / My Son David from:
       Karan Casey, Crooked Jades, Tim Eriksen, Hickory Signals,
       Pat Kilbride, Jeana Leslie & Siobhan Miller, Lynched, Nua,
       Old Blind Dogs, Old Blind Dogs (Live), Readman & Bice,
       Alasdair Roberts, Jeannie Robertson, Pauline Scanlon,
       Deirdre Starr, Steeleye Span, Strömkarlen, June Tabor,
       Tradish, James Yorkston

 Watch Edward / What Put the Blood / My Son David from:
       The Alt, Hickory Signals, Fay Hield, Lankum, Jeana Leslie & Siobhan Miller,
       Malinky, Old Blind Dogs, Oyster Band & June Tabor, Deirdre Starr, Steeleye Span

Lyrics (© Mainly Norfolk):
Edward / My Son David / Henry

Broom of the Cowdenknowes

Diane Ní Chanainn

Diane Ní Chanainn: Idir Muir Agus Sliabh
»'Broom o' the Cowdenknowes', also known as 'Bonny May', is a traditional Scottish love ballad which goes back to the seventeenth century, but its exact origin is unknown. The title of the song references the Scotch Broom (Cytisus scoparius), a vibrant yellow flower found throughout Scotland and Ireland, including Cowdenknowes, a Scottish barony east of the Leader Water, 32 miles southeast of Edinburgh in Berwickshire. Many Irish migrants worked in industrial and agricultural settings in Scotland, including Berwickshire, and I am sure that a good number of them passed through Cowdenknowes. To this day, my own part of Donegal retains strong family ties to the Irish diaspora in Scotland. I feel very secure about including such as song on this album to acknowledge our ties across the North Channel.«

Diane Ní Chanainn @ FROG

Artist Video »Child printed 15 texts of this ballad, none of which go back beyond the 18th century. The song is considered older than this, however, and an English song published in the reign of James Ist, The Lovely Northerne Lasse, has for its air “a pleasant Scotch tune called The Broom of Cowdenknowes.” An earlier reference is to be found in the fifth edition of Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy 1538: “The very rusticks and hog rubbers … have their ballads, country tunes, O, the broome, the bonny, bonny broome.”« (E. MacColl)

"Broom of the Cowdenknowes", also known as "Bonny May", is a traditional Scottish love ballad, Child #217. It has been traced to the seventeenth century, but its exact origin is unknown.

The title of the song references the Scotch Broom (Cytisus scoparius) flower, a vibrant yellow flower found throughout Scotland, including Cowdenknowes, a Scottish barony east of the Leader Water (River Leader), 32 miles southeast of Edinburgh in Berwickshire.


The Watersons

The Watersons: New Voices (1965)
»In the “Symptoms of Love” section of Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy (1652) we read: “The very rusticks and hog-rubbers have their wakes, Whitsun ales, shepherds' feasts, country dances, roundelays. They have their ballads, country tunes, O the broom, the bonny, bonny broom.” This is the song that the gipsy Alice Boyce is said to have sung before Queen Elizabeth, and it has remained a favourite ever since. It was originally a Scots song though we can't be sure if the old tune to it (the one the Watersons use here) isn't in fact English. It was published in London, in Playford's Dancing Master in 1650, whereas the first Scottish publication of Cowdenknowes (to another, more modern tune) wasn't till 75 years later, in the Tea Table Miscellany. Anyway, English or Scots, it's a good old tune.« (A.L. Lloyd)
Artist Video
The Watersons @ FROG

The original and extended ballad was the story of a young shepherdess who falls in love with a stranger on horseback, who rides by her pasture every day. The song became popular across Scotland and England towards the end of the reign of James Vl & I, and the earliest publication date found is 1651. The melody was also published as a dance tune, during the same year, in John Playford's first edition of The English Dancing Master.

Throughout the many versions of the popular folksong, there are many lyrical variations, but the plot remain consistent. The shepherdess and stranger fall in love and have an affair. When she becomes pregnant, she is banished from her country. She seeks out her lover, finding him to now be a wealthy lord. They marry, but she is never truly happy away from her own country, and she pines for "the bonnie bonnie broom".

Traditionally, the song is sung from the perspective of the shepherdess. The broom, a tall shrub which blooms with spikes of small golden flowers, once grew abundantly on hillsides of the Scottish Borders.

Broom of the Cowdenknowes

Silly Wizard: Caledonia's Hardy Sons
 Listen to Broom of the Cowdenknowes from:
       Diane Ní Chanainn, Rose Laughlin, The McCalmans,
       An Rinn, Silly Wizard

 Watch Broom of the Cowdenknowes from:
       Donal Clancy, Archie Fisher, Dave Gunning & J.P. Cormier,
       The McCalmans

Lyrics (© Mainly Norfolk):
The Broom of Cowdenknowes / Bonny May

The Keach i the Creel


Megson: con-tra-dic-shun

Artist Video Megson @ FROG

The Keach I the Creel is Child ballad 281.


Ewan MacColl

The English and Scottish Popular Ballads (The Child Ballads) Volume II
»This delightful piece of ribaldry deserves to be better known. It is a recent ballad when compared to the antiquity of some of Child's ballads, and does not appear to have been known in Britain before the first half of the 19th century. The ballad tale, however, is considerably older and was the subject to various 13th and 14th century fabliaux. It was known in England in the last half of the 19th century, but has not been reported there from tradition in this century. In Scotland, it has continued to be popular, and Greig and Keith [Last Leaves of Traditional Ballads and Ballad Airs] reported twelve texts collected in the first quarter of the 20th century. Extremely rare in the United Stated, only a single complete text has been collected (in the Catskill Mountains of New York State). MacColl's version was learned from the singing of Jimmy McBeath of Elgin.« (K.S. Goldstein)
Artist Video
Ewan MacColl @ FROG

A young woman tells a man that her parents keep her too close for them to meet. The man has his brother make a ladder and a pulley to hoist a basket (creel) down the chimney; the ladder takes him to the chimney, and riding in the large creel he is lowered into her bedroom. Her mother guesses there is a man in the daughter's bed and sends the father. She hides her lover and persuades her father she was praying. Her mother, still suspicious, goes herself. She trips and is caught ("keach" being catch, "keach i the creel" being "the catch in the basket" - usually referring to fish caught and stored in a basket slung from the fisherman's hip or shoulder) in the creel and tossed all about in it; the father professes that he's fed up with all of them, for he's had no rest all the night with the goings-on.

Pilgrim's Way
Pilgrim's Way: Red Diesel
»A Playford tune dovetails with a story of parents, sex, and window cleaning equipment, in an eerie foreshadowing of 1970s British erotica.«

»Here we observe the correct method for obtaining access to the charming Natalie who lives with her doting but insomniac parents. Rope, a ladder and some sort of basket may be easily obtained from any hardware store or fetish shop. In the event of a emergency, get an accomplice to frighten the living daylights out of the strumpet's fragile old mother.«

The Keach in the Creel

Paul Brady: Welcome Here Kind Stranger
 Listen to The Keach in the Creel from:
       Paul Brady, Megson, Pilgrims' Way

 Watch The Keach in the Creel from:
       Paul Brady, Noctambule, Quilty

Lyrics (© Mainly Norfolk):
Ride in the Creel / Keek in the Creel / Wee Toun Clerk

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia [,,,]. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.

Date: June 2019.

Photo Credits: (1) Joe Rollin Porter, (2) Margaret MacArthur, (3) Claire Hastings, (4) Robbie Bankes, (5),(17) Waterson:Carthy, (6) A.L. Lloyd, (7),(14) Fay Hield, (9) John Wesley Harding (Wesley Stace), (10) Hickory Signals, (12),(20) Ewan McColl, (13) Jim Malcolm, (16) Diane Ní Chanainn, (21) Pilgrims Way (unknown/website); (8) 'The Raggle Taggle Gypsy', (15) 'Edward', (18) 'Broom of the Cowdenknowes', (22) 'The Keach in the Creel' (by ABC Notations); (11) June Tabor (by Walkin' Tom); (19) Megson (by The Mollis).

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